My experiences are much more focused on UK accounting, since I'm based in the UK. I understand that the US system can be even more painful in many ways, depending on which state you register in. Tim Raybould, a former PWC accountant and now CFO at TicketLeap has published a series of articles explaining his view of how to set up an accounting system for a new startup. It's split into 4 parts:
From a UK point of view, this seems a tad heavy. I feel like most startups don't need to go into such depth (e.g. having a monthly close) to function. However, being aware of what will eventually be "business as usual" in your company's finances is certainly good, so have a read if you're US-based.